The first sexually integrated jury hears cases in Albany, New York.


German astronomer Maria Kirch became the first woman to discover a comet.


United States: In the Province of Pennsylvania married women are allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse.

Russia bans gender segregation.


Russia bans all forced marriages.


At the age of 20, Italian physicist Laura Bassi became the first female member of the Bologna Academy of Sciences. One month later, she publicly defended her academic theses and received a PhD. Bassi was awarded an honorary position as professor of physics at the University of Bologna. She was the first female physics professor in the world.


French polymath Émilie du Châtelet became the first woman to have a paper published by the Paris Academy, following a contest on the nature of fire.


French polymath Émilie du Châtelet published Institutions de Physique (Foundations of Physics), providing a metaphysical basis for Newtonian physics.


Swedish agronomist Eva Ekeblad became the first woman member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.


19-year-old Italian physicist Cristina Roccati received her PhD from the University of Bologna.


After the death of her husband, Italian anatomist Anna Morandi Manzolini took his place at the University of Bologna, becoming a professor of anatomy and establishing an internationally-known laboratory for anatomical research.


French astronomer Nicole-Reine Lepaute worked with mathematicians Alexis Clairaut and Joseph Lalande to calculate the next arrival of Haley’s Comet.


French astronomer Nicole-Reine Lepaute calculated the time and percentage of a solar eclipse that had been predicted to occur in two years time. She created a map to show the phases, and published a table of her calculations in the 1763 edition of Connaissance des Temps.


French chemist Geneviéve Thiroux d’Arconville published her study on putrefaction. The book presented her observations from more than 300 experiments over the span of five years, during which she attempted to discover factors necessary for the preservation of beef, eggs, and other foods. Her work was recommended for royal privilege by fellow chemist Pierre-Joseph Macquer.


The colonies adopt the English system decreeing women cannot own property in their own name or keep their own earnings.


At the University of Bologna, Italian physicist Laura Bassi became the first woman appointed as chair of physics at a university.

Abigail Adams writes to her husband, John, who is attending the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, asking that he and the other men–who were at work on the Declaration of Independence–“Remember the Ladies.” John responds with humor. The Declaration’s wording specifies that “all men are created equal.”


All states pass laws which take away women’s right to vote.

1787 – 1797

Self-taught Chinese astronomer Wang Zhenyi published at least twelve books and multiple articles on astronomy and mathematics.Using a lamp, a mirror and a table, she consecrated a famous scientific exhibit designed to accurately simulate a lunar eclipse.


French astronomer Louise du Pierry, the first Parisian woman to become an astronomy professor, taught the first astronomy courses specifically open to female students.


France establishes equal inheritance rights (which would be abolished in 1804.)


France legalizes divorce for both sexes (which would be abolished in 1804.)


Scottish chemist Elizabeth Fulhame invented the concept of catalysis and published a book on her findings.


France: Local women-units of the defense army are founded in several cities; approximately eight thousand women were estimated to have served openly in the French arm e in local troops between 1792 and 1794, but women were officially barred from the arm e in 1795