Native American aerospace engineer Mary Golda Ross became employed at Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, where she provided troubleshooting for military aircraft. She went on to work for NASA, developing operational requirements, flight plans, and a Planetary Flight Handbook for spacecraft missions such as the Apollo program.
American physicists and mathematicians Frances Spence, Ruth Teitelbaum, Marlyn Meltzer, Betty Holberton, Jean Bartik and Kathleen Antonelli programmed the electronic general- purpose computer ENIAC, becoming some of the world’s first computer programmers.
American biochemist Marie Maynard Daly became the first African-American woman to complete a PhD in chemistry in the United States. She completed her dissertation, entitled “A Study of the Products Formed by the Action of Pancreatic Amylase on Corn Starch” at Columbia University.
Isabella Abbott became the first Native Hawaiian woman to receive a PhD in any science; hers was in botany.
American microbiologist Esther Lederberg became the first to isolate lambda bacteriophage, a DNA virus, from Escherichia coli K-12.
Jerrie Cobb is the first U.S. woman to undergo astronaut testing. NASA, however, cancels the women’s program in 1963. It is not until 1983 that an American woman gets sent into space.
Japanese geochemist Katsuko Saruhashi published her research on measuring carbonic acid levels in seawater. The paper included “Saruhashi’s Table”, a tool of measurement she had developed that focused on using water temperature, pH level, and chlorinity to determine carbonic acid levels. Her work contributed to global understanding of climate change, and Saruhashi’s Table was used by oceanographers for the next 30 years.