1900-1919 (Asian/Pacific Islander)
Organic Act

Organic Act makes all U.S. laws applicable to Hawaii, thus ending contract labor in the islands.  Japanese Hawaiian plantation workers begin migrating to the mainland

Chinese Exclusion Extended

Chinese exclusion extended for another ten years.

Korean Immigrants

First significant group of 7,000 Korean immigrants arrive in Honolulu as contract laborers to break strike against Japanese workers. Koreans in Hawaii form Korean Evangelical Society.


Filipino students (pensionados) arrive in the U.S. for higher education.

Japanese Plantation Workers Strike

Japanese plantation workers engage in first organized strike in Hawaii.

American Response to Asians

First Asian Indians arrive in U.S. as farm laborers. Chinese in the U.S. and Hawaii support boycott of American products in China. San Francisco School Board attempts to segregate Japanese schoolchildren. Korean immigration ends. Section 60 of California’s Civil Code amended to forbid marriage between whites and “Mongolians.”

San Fransisco Earthquake

Major earthquake in San Francisco destroys all municipal records including immigration records, preventing Chinese immigrants from claiming they are U.S. citizens

Executive Order 589

Japan and U.S. reach “Gentleman’s Agreement” whereby Japan stops issuing passports to laborers desiring to emigrate to the U.S.  President Theodore Roosevelt signs Executive Order 589 prohibiting Japanese with passports for Hawaii, Mexico or Canada to re-immigrate to the U.S.  First group of Filipino laborers arrive in Hawaii.  Asian Indians are driven out of Bellingham, WA

Japanese Association of America

Japanese Association of America was organized as a new central body of local groups of Japanese. Asian Indians are driven out of Live Oak, CA.

Korean Nationalist Association

Koreans form Korean Nationalist Association. 

Angel Island Immigration Station

Administrative measures used to restrict influx of Asian Indians into California. Angel Island Immigration Station opens to process and deport Asian immigrants.

Nisei Education

Japanese in California hold statewide conference on Nisei education.

Alien Land Law encourages formation of Ghadar Party

California passes alien land law prohibiting “alien’s ineligible to citizenship” from buying land or leasing it for longer than three years. Asian Indians in California found the revolutionary Ghadar Party. Korean farm workers are driven out of Hemet, CA.

Sessue Hayakawa

Sessue Hayakawa becomes first Asian to star in Hollywood film with release of The Typhoon.

Central Japanese Association of Southern California and the Japanese Chamber of Commerce

Japanese form Central Japanese Association of Southern California and the Japanese Chamber of Commerce.

Asian Servicemen Naturalization

Servicemen of Asian ancestry who served in World War I receive right of naturalization.

Anna May Wong

Anna May Wong became first Asian American actress to premier in an American Film.

Federation of Japanese Labor

Japanese form Federation of Japanese Labor in Hawaii.