1800 -1899 (African-Americans)
1800
Nat Turner

Nat Turner, white man, leads slave rebellion in VA.

1807
Slave Trade Ban

Congress bans the slave trade.

1853
George Crum

George Crum, a cook in Sarasota Lake, invents the potato chip.

1857
Dred Scott Decision

Dred Scott Supreme Court decision- Blacks not citizens.

1861
American Civil War

Civil War Erupts between North and South.

1863
Emancipation Proclamation

Emancipation Proclamation frees slaves.

1864
Andre Reboucas

Andre Reboucas invents the early prototype of the torpedo.

1865
Lincoln Assassination

President Lincoln assassinated.

1865
Blacks Demand Equal Rights/Voting

Blacks hold mass meeting Norfolk VA demanding equal rights and ballots.

1865-1867
HBCU Genesis

Historically Black Colleges & Universities (HBCU) founded.

1868
The 14th Ammendment

The 14th Amendment to the United States adopted, declaring all persons born in the U.S. are citizens regardless of race.

1870
Joseph Rainey

Joseph Rainey becomes the first African-American member elected to Congress.

1872
Elijah McCoy

Elijah McCoy invents the automatic lubricator.

1880
Lewis Latimer

Lewis Latimer creates a method for light bulb to shine brighter and last longer, thus patenting the first modern lightbulb.

1891
Daniel Hale Williams (Provident Hospital)

Daniel Hale Williams, MD, opens Provident Hospital and Training School for Nurses, in Chicago. It is the nation’s first hospital with a nursing and intern program with a racially integrated staff.

1893
Daniel Hale Williams (open heart surgery)

Daniel Hale Williams, MD, an African American surgeon, performs one of the first successful open-heart surgeries.